Speech Disorders

EXPLANATION: It is important to note that expressive and receptive language disorders are different from speech problems. Speech disorders involve the physical structures of the mouth, tongue, or voice; the person with a speech disorder has trouble physically forming the words. Language disorders involve the area of the brain that controls the processing of language and communication. Receptive language is the ability to interpret and make sense of communication you receive, and expressive language is the ability to express your ideas and thoughts to others. Since different areas of the brain control receptive and expressive language processing, it is possible to have difficulties in just one of these areas, but still have normal or above normal intelligence and reasoning abilities in all other areas.

The emergence in children of a properly organised speech sound system is called phonological development. Phonological development involves three aspects:

the way the sound is stored in the child’s mind;
the way the sound is actually said by the child; and,
the rules or processes that map between the two above.

PREVALANCE: All Communication Disorders are more common in boys than in girls. boys are three times more likely to develop a stuttering disorder than are girls.

Acquired language disorders (which arise after a period of normal development and result from hearing loss or some other type of trauma) appear to be less common than developmental types (which are present from very early on in children’s development).

 

CLASSIFICATION: Communication Disorders are problems of childhood that affect learning, language, and/or speech.

  • Expressive Language Disorder,
  • Phonological Disorder,
  • Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder
  • Stuttering